PREPARED - Optimal Macro-Location methods for sensor placement in Urban Water Systems D3.5.1
This report provides a critical state-of-the-art literature review on the subject of optimal sensor placement in Urban Water Systems (UWS). It presents a summary of existing sensor macro-location design methodologies intended to facilitate the collection of relevant and efficient measurements in UWS. The optimal placement of a limited number of sensors within an urban water network (â€˜idealâ€™ locations at which measurements of selected quantities should be taken) is a necesssary step in the application of intelligent and cost-effective monitoring for current and prospective water supply and sanitation systems. The definition of an â€˜optimisedâ€™ sensor network is dependent on the intended purpose of the sampling scheme and the resulting sensor data. Design methodologies in literature are typically catered toward one of a number of distinct agendas and the field is consequently segmented into a range of subsidiary groups, i.e., methods to determine optimal placement schemes for effective contaminant detection, methods to determine optimal schemes for model calibration, and methods for leak and burst detection or source tracing; each formulation of which may be largely irrelevant outside of its own context. It should be noted that model calibration is the focus of this review, and in aid of an inclusive and cohesive review of sensor macro-location literature, optimal macro-location is broached here from a more generalised perspective.